weight loss

Met Gala 2022: Kim Kardashian Lost 16 Pounds In Three Weeks To Wear Marilyn Monroe’s Dress

Washington [US]: American TV personality Kim Kardashian, who stepped out for the 2022 Met Gala as a Marilyn Monroe look-alike, has revealed the lengths she went to for the transformation.

While walking the 2022 Met Gala Red Carpet, the theme of which was ‘In America: An Anthology of Fashion’, Kim donned Marilyn’s original 60-year-old dress that she had worn while famously singing “Happy Birthday Mr President” to John F. Kennedy in 1962, according to E! News. The outlet reported that while speaking to a fashion magazine, Kim revealed that in order to fit into the dress she had to lose 16 pounds in three weeks. “It was such a challenge. It was like a role. I was determined to fit,” she said.

The SKIMS founder further said that for a fitting at her residence, the outfit had to be flown on a private plane from Ripley’s Believe It Or Not Museum. It was transported by guards and she had to wear gloves to try it on.

“I always thought she was extremely curvy. I imagined I might be smaller in some places where she was bigger and bigger in places where she was smaller. So when it didn’t fit me I wanted to cry because it can’t be altered at all,” Kim added.

Detailing her process for losing weight for the big night, she stated, “I would wear a sauna suit twice a day, run on the treadmill, completely cut out all sugar and all carbs, and just eat the cleanest veggies and protein. I didn’t starve myself, but I was so strict.” When it finally fit, she explained, “I wanted to cry tears of joy.”

Apart from her Marilyn makeover, Kim also debuted a new blonde hairstyle as she stepped onto the red carpet with her boyfriend Pete Davidson, who was dressed in a Dior suit and sunglasses at the event, as per E! News. (ANI)

Ajith Loses Weight, Check Out The Latest Picture

Ajith has joined forces with director H Vinoth for the third continuous time, and the film tentatively titled ‘AK 61’ kickstarted with a puja in April. Ajith celebrated his 51st birthday yesterday, and fans and celebrities flooded social media with wishes for the beloved actor.

Meanwhile, Ajith’s latest picture has hit the internet last night, and the actor was spotted thinner than his previous look. Seems the actor has been on a serious mission on losing weight for his character in his next film.

Ajith’s latest picture goes viral as it grabs the major eyeballs.

Earlier, Ajith visited an Ayurvedic center in Kerala to take tips for his weight loss, and the actor has found a healthy way to regain his fitness. ‘Ajith 61’ aka ‘AK 61’ is reported to be a heist thriller, and a huge bank set has been erected in Hyderabad for the film shoot. The extensive shoot for the film is underway in Hyderabad, and the makers have kept details about the cast a secret. Ajith will be finishing off the film in a quick time, and the film is expected to release at the end of 2022.

Ajith has also announced his 62nd film with Vignesh Shivan, and it’s one of the rarest times that the actor has announced his next before completing his current film. Vignesh Shivan is yet to finish the script for the film, and he is aiming to hit a huge one with Ajith.

Study: No Fertility Benefits From Weight Loss

Washington [US], March 19 (ANI): There are no fertility benefits from weight loss, a recent clinical study has confirmed.

The findings of the study were published in the journal ‘PLOS Medicine’. A randomized study of 379 women with obesity and unexplained infertility found that intensive lifestyle changes that shed pounds led to no better chances of pregnancy and healthy births than simply increasing physical activity without weight loss.

“We have known for decades that obese women often have difficulty getting pregnant,” said researcher Daniel J.

Haisenleder, PhD, of the University of Virginia School of Medicine’s Center for Research in Reproduction. “For this reason, many physicians advise weight loss prior to conception. However, there are few studies that have addressed the issue comparing a healthy lifestyle — i.e., exercise — vs. exercise plus weight loss.”

The FIT-PLESE study, conducted at nine academic medical centres across the country, divided participants into two groups: Half the women dieted intensely using meal replacements, medications and increased physical activity.

The other half simply increased their physical activity without trying to lose weight. After completing the programs, both groups received three rounds of standard infertility treatments.

Women in the weight-loss program ended up losing, on average, 7 per cent of their body weight, while participants in the exercise-only group typically maintained their weights.

But, in the end, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the frequency of healthy births. In total, 23 of the 188 women who completed the 16-week intensive weight-loss program ended up giving birth; among the 191 who completed the exercise-only program, 29 gave birth.

The intensive dieting program did offer health benefits for the women who completed it, however. In addition to dropping pounds, they saw a major decrease in metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions that increase the risk for serious health problems such as diabetes, stroke, and heart disease.

Based on their findings, Haisenleder and his collaborators conclude that the weight-loss program did not make women more fertile or improve birth outcomes compared with simply exercising. They noted the health benefits of weight loss may not translate into better odds of getting pregnant.

“Weight loss improved metabolic health in these subjects. Unfortunately, the changes seen did not improve fertility,” Haisenleder said. “Infertility within this population remains an important health issue, and will require further studies to address the problem in the future.”

Study: Weight Loss Doesn’t Increase Pregnancy Chances

Washington [US], March 14 (ANI): A new study has found that there are no fertility benefits from weight loss.

The findings of the study were published in the journal ‘PLOS Medicine’. A randomized study of 379 women with obesity and unexplained infertility found that intensive lifestyle changes that shed pounds led to no better chances of pregnancy and healthy births than simply increasing physical activity without weight loss.

“We have known for decades that obese women often have difficulty getting pregnant,” said researcher Daniel J. Haisenleder, PhD, of the University of Virginia School of Medicine’s Center for Research in Reproduction. “For this reason, many physicians advise weight loss prior to conception. However, there are few studies that have addressed the issue comparing a healthy lifestyle — i.e., exercise — vs. exercise plus weight loss.”

The FIT-PLESE study, conducted at nine academic medical centres across the country, divided participants into two groups: Half the women dieted intensely using meal replacements, medications and increased physical activity. The other half simply increased their physical activity without trying to lose weight. After completing the programs, both groups received three rounds of standard infertility treatments.

Women in the weight-loss program ended up losing, on average, 7 per cent of their body weight, while participants in the exercise-only group typically maintained their weights. But, in the end, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of the frequency of healthy births. In total, 23 of the 188 women who completed the 16-week intensive weight-loss program ended up giving birth; among the 191 who completed the exercise-only program, 29 gave birth.

The intensive dieting program did offer health benefits for the women who completed it, however. In addition to dropping pounds, they saw a major decrease in metabolic syndrome, a cluster of conditions that increase the risk for serious health problems such as diabetes, stroke and heart disease.

Based on their findings, Haisenleder and his collaborators conclude that the weight-loss program did not make women more fertile or improve birth outcomes compared with simply exercising. They noted the health benefits of weight loss may not translate into better odds of getting pregnant.

“Weight loss improved metabolic health in these subjects. Unfortunately, the changes seen did not improve fertility,” Haisenleder said. “Infertility within this population remains an important health issue, and will require further studies to address the problem in the future.”

Study: Weight Loss Decreases Risk Of Colorectal Cancer

Oxford [England], February 13 (ANI): A new study has shed light on the connection between weight loss and the risk of cancer.

The study in ‘JNCI Cancer Spectrum’, published by Oxford University Press, indicated that overweight and obese people who lose weight may reduce their chances of later developing colorectal adenoma: a type of benign growth or polyp in the colon or rectum that could lead to colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer and the third leading cause of death from cancer among men and women in the United States.

Over the past 30 years, obesity has increased in the United States and worldwide, leading to the increased development of many chronic diseases. Obesity is a known risk factor for colorectal adenoma and colorectal cancer.

Doctors recommend weight loss for overweight and obese people commonly. Although weight loss is thought to have some beneficial health effects, whether losing weight can reduce the chance of developing colorectal adenoma has been an open question. Most studies have only investigated colorectal adenoma risk in relation to obesity or body mass index assessed at a one-time point, with fewer studies assessing the role of weight change.

Researchers here assessed weight change (including both weight gain and weight loss) over three periods of adulthood in relation to colorectal adenoma using self-reported weight data in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

The trial enrolled 154,942 men and women in the United States ages 55 to 74 from 1993 to 2001 to evaluate the effectiveness of different screening approaches in preventing death from various cancers. This current study used data from participants in the screening arm of the trial, who received a colorectal cancer screening test at baseline and again 3 or 5 years later.

The investigators found that, compared to a stable weight, weight loss in adulthood (defined as a loss greater than or equal to 1.1 pounds per 5 years) was associated with a 46 per cent reduced risk for colorectal adenoma. This was particularly true among adults who were initially overweight or obese. The investigators also reported that weight gain in adulthood was associated with an increased chance of adenoma, particularly for weight gain greater than 6.6 pounds over 5 years.

Findings for weight loss and weight gain appeared stronger among men than women. The researchers believe that the findings suggest the importance of healthy weight maintenance throughout adulthood in preventing colorectal adenoma. Additionally, adults who are overweight or obese may be able to reduce their risk of developing colorectal adenoma by losing weight.

“Our findings suggest that avoiding weight gain in adulthood may help lower someone’s chance of developing a pre-cancerous growth called a colorectal adenoma, which may, in turn, reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer,” said the study’s senior author, Kathryn Hughes Barry. “Based on our findings, we would not recommend weight loss for all adults.

But the results suggest that overweight and obese adults may benefit from weight loss.”

Study: Losing Weight Before Fertility Treatment Might Not Increase Births For Obese Women

Washington [US], January 19 (ANI): A new study has found that women with obesity and unexplained infertility who lost weight prior to starting infertility treatments did not have a greater chance of having a healthy baby than those who did not lose weight prior to starting therapy.

The study has been published in the ‘PLOS Medicine Journal’. 40 per cent of U.S. women between the ages of 20 and 40 are estimated to have obesity, which has been associated with trouble getting pregnant, pregnancy complications, and loss. As a result, it is common for those women to receive guidance to lose weight prior to conception to increase their chances of having a healthy baby.

Dr Richard Legro, professor and chair of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Penn State Health Milton S. Hershey Medical Centre, led a multi-centre National Institutes of Health sponsored study of more than 300 women with obesity and unexplained infertility to evaluate whether targeted weight loss prior to fertility treatments could increase their likelihood of delivering a healthy baby.

Participants had to have a body mass index greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 with regular ovulation and at least one year of unexplained infertility. Women with anovulation, where an egg doesn’t release from the ovary during the menstrual cycle, and polycystic ovary syndrome, where women often experience infrequent or abnormal menstrual cycles as a result of hormone imbalance in the ovaries, were not eligible to participate in the study.

Participants were divided into two groups. One group followed a protocol of increased physical activity and targeted weight loss through meal replacements and medication, while members of the other group increased their physical activity without guided weight loss. The women completed these programs for a period of 16 weeks before beginning three cycles of infertility therapy that consisted of ovarian stimulation and intrauterine insemination.

At the end of the study period, the researchers noticed no significant differences in the number of pregnancies and healthy births between the two groups. Members of the guided weight loss group lost an average of 7 per cent of their body weight, while the other participants experienced no significant weight loss.

According to Legro, the results added to a growing body of evidence that healthy births are not more likely to occur in women with obesity who lose weight prior to starting infertility treatment than those who have not lost weight prior to conception.

“Although it differs from current clinical standards of care, there’s just not enough evidence to recommend preconception weight loss in women with obesity and unexplained infertility,” Legro said.

While it may not increase a woman with obesity’s chances of delivering a healthy baby, the researchers noted there may be other health benefits for these women if they lose weight. Some of the women in the weight loss group had decreased blood pressure and a reduction in waist circumference.

Study: Rye Better Than Refined Wheat For Weight Loss

According to new research by Chalmers University of Technology, eating whole grain rye products instead of refined wheat alternatives can offer worthwhile health benefits.

The study has been published in the ‘Clinical Nutrition Journal’. It is the largest study yet designed to evaluate the effects of particular types of grains on body weight and body fat, as well as the first study to focus specifically on rye.

The study included 242 overweight men and women between the ages of 30 and 70 who were randomly assigned carefully adjusted daily amounts of refined wheat or whole-grain rye products with the same energy value. All participants also received the same general advice on healthy eating from a dietitian.

The participants were examined at the start of the study, halfway through, and at twelve weeks, when the study ended.

“The results were clear – the participants who received rye products lost more weight overall, and their levels of body fat decreased compared to those who received wheat products,” said Kia Nohr Iversen, a researcher at the Division of Food and Nutrition Science at the Chalmers University of Technology, and lead author of the study, which forms part of her recently presented doctoral dissertation.

Although both the rye and wheat groups lost weight during the study, those who ate rye products lost an average of one kilogram more than those who ate wheat products, with the difference attributable to fat loss.

Different people can react to the same foods in different ways, depending on, for example, the particular bacteria present in the gut, and the way they break down. At the Division of Food and Nutrition Science at the Chalmers University of Technology, research is underway into how diet can be better adapted to the individual level, providing precision nutritional advice to yield greater health benefits. The new study offered unique data that can be used to further research in this area.

“Although we saw an overall difference in weight loss between the rye and the wheat group, there was also very large variation within those groups. Increasing our understanding of why different people respond differently to the same foods can pave the way for more specifically tailored diets based on individual needs. We are currently investigating whether certain specific bacteria in the intestine might be the explanation behind why some people lost more weight than others who were also on the rye diet,” said Rikard Landberg, Professor of Food and Health at the Chalmers University of Technology.

Obesity and excess weight are among the biggest health challenges in the world and require many different measures. One idea is to develop foods that contribute to an increased feeling of fullness and have positive effects on metabolism.

Previous studies have observed that those who eat rye, which has a very high content of dietary fibre, feel fuller than those who eat the corresponding amount of energy in the form of refined wheat. One of the purposes of this study was therefore to investigate this potential link between increased intake of rye and weight loss.

“But surprisingly, in this study, we actually never observed any difference in appetite. We think this may be simply because the method we used to measure appetite was not good enough. We are therefore working on evaluating and developing the method further,” said Kia Nohr Iversen.

In order for a food to be marketed with specific health claims, a series of rigorous studies must be carried out to prove the effect. These studies are costly and represent a barrier to obtaining the scientific evidence needed, making it less attractive in turn for food producers to develop and market products that could contribute to reducing excess weight and obesity.

“A particularly positive aspect of our study is that the rye products we used are easily attainable in normal supermarkets in Scandinavia and most of Europe. Consumers can therefore act on the new results immediately. It does not require particular effort or dedication to have a diet rich in whole grain rye,” said Kia Nohr Iversen.

The researchers cautioned that there is more work needed before they can show in detail exactly what mechanisms determine why whole-grain rye is good for weight loss at the individual level. But the results of the new study already demonstrated a causal link between rye intake and weight loss through fat reduction and studies to determine the mechanisms behind this link are already underway.

“As we continue to look for the exact reasons why our advice is to choose the rye bread instead of the sifted wheat bread,” said Kia Nohr Iversen.

Study: Moving More Often Linked To Long-Term Weight Loss In Older Adults

A study has found that focusing less on structured exercise, and more on building frequent periods of enjoyable movements into the day, will more likely contribute to long-term weight loss.

The research has been published in the ‘Obesity Journal’. This study is the first to demonstrate that a behavioural intervention focused on moving often throughout the day produces similar short-term weight loss and better long-term weight maintenance relative to a high volume of aerobic treadmill walking.

“This research is relevant for clinicians and other healthcare providers interested in supporting long-term weight loss among older adults, and for older adults who are personally interested in weight loss and avoiding weight gain,” said Jason Fanning, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Health and Exercise Science at Wake Forest University in Winston-Salem, NC. Fanning is the corresponding author of the study.

Males and females from Forsyth County, North Carolina and surrounding areas were recruited for the study through local advertisements. Recruitment occurred in six waves between 2016 and January 2019, and the final follow-up was completed in September 2020. Participants recruited in the first four waves of this study completed procedures prior to the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, whereas the final two waves participated during the COVID-19 quarantine orders. The analysis presented pertains to participants who completed study procedures prior to the COVID-19 quarantine orders.

A total of 183 men and women aged 65 to 85 years who were classified as having obesity based on a body mass index of 30 to 45 kg/m2 were selected. The average participant was 70 years old, primarily female, highly educated and with hypertension and arthritis as being the most self-reported, prevalent comorbidities. These traits did not statistically differ between study groups.

Participants were randomized to receive a group-based, dietary weight loss program paired with one of three physical activity recommendations: aerobic exercise and SitLess, which tasked participants with moving frequently throughout the day; aerobic exercise alone; or SitLess alone. All participants received a Fitbit Alta activity monitor at least two weeks prior to the start of the intervention, and the device was paired with a mobile health application that was tailored to each intervention arm (mHealth app; the EMPOWER Companion App). The app facilitated contact between group members and research staff between intervention visits and was designed to facilitate self-monitoring of activity behaviours by providing group-specific, visual feedback of Fitbit activity data. Study assessments were collected by blinded research staff at baseline, after the intensive phase of intervention (six months) and at the end of the maintenance phase (18 months).

Group meeting attendance was 80 per cent in weight loss and SitLess, 84 per cent in weight loss and aerobic exercise, and 78 per cent in weight loss, aerobic exercise and SitLess. Regarding structured exercise appointments, those in weight loss and aerobic exercise attended 79 per cent of exercise sessions on average, whereas weight loss, aerobic exercise and SitLess attended 65 per cent. Average weekly application usage during the intensive phase (weeks 1-24) and the full study period (weeks 1-72) revealed that weight loss, SitLess and aerobic exercise group had the most app usage compared to the weight loss and aerobic exercise group which had the least amount of app usage. Those who received the SitLess intervention tended to view their app more frequently, which was expected, as these individuals were coached to view their activity patterns several times daily.

Counter to expectations, researchers found the weight loss, aerobic exercise and SitLess condition did not lose more weight or contributed to better weight maintenance relative to weight loss and SitLess or weight loss and aerobic exercise. Instead, only the weight loss and aerobic exercise condition demonstrated significantly more regain relative to weight loss and SitLess.

“This is encouraging evidence that “moving more, more often” is beneficial for inclusion in weight loss and weight maintenance efforts for older adults. This form of treatment option may be perceived as more accessible and feasible for people pursuing sustained weight loss since it does not require structured exercise sessions and should be explored in future research. Simplification of guidance regarding exercise to “move more, more often” to sustain weight loss is promising for clinical practice and public health efforts moving forward,” said Alexandra Lee, PhD, a post-doctoral scholar in the Department of Kinesiology at The Pennsylvania State University. Lee was not associated with the research.

Other authors of the study include W.J. Rejeski, Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC; I. Leng and J.F. Lovato, Department of Biostatistics and Data Science, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Wake Forest University; and C. Barnett, M.F. Lyles and B.J. Nicklas, Department of Internal Medicine, Wake Forest University.

Video-Based Exercise, Weight Loss Programs Improves Quality Of Life

A new study has found that video-based exercise and weight loss programs with online educational support improved pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis and overweight or obesity.

The findings of the study have been published in the journal ‘Annals of Internal Medicine’. Osteoarthritis affects more than 32.5 million adults in the United States and is a major public health problem around the world. Knee osteoarthritis is commonly associated with overweight and obesity, which aggravate pain and disability, accelerate osteoarthritis progression, and increase the likelihood of requiring costly knee surgery. Scalable knee osteoarthritis programs are needed to deliver recommended education, exercise, and weight-loss interventions.

Researchers from the University of Melbourne recruited 416 people with persistent knee pain to participate in the Better Knee, Better Me trial. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two 6-month telehealth-delivered programs, one with and one without dietary intervention, compared with an information-only control group.

During the trial, participants in the intervention groups were provided support from physiotherapists and dietitians via Zoom and had a suite of educational resources available online. Those in the exercise plus diet group also received meal replacements so they could maintain a ketogenic, low-calorie diet.

At 6 months, the researchers found that compared to control, participants in both programs had significant improvements in knee pain, physical function, and quality of life, which were maintained in the longer term.

Compared to the exercise-only program, the combined exercise and diet program led to additional benefits – including a greater reduction in pain, greater improvements in physical function, lower use of pain medications, and an average weight loss of 22 lbs over the 6-month program.

According to the researchers, these findings suggest that telehealth programs represent potentially scalable and accessible ways for people with knee osteoarthritis to receive recommended interventions.

Study Finds Potential Strategy For Fighting Obesity

Scientists have identified a method of safely mimicking weight-loss benefits of a plant compound that holds critical answers to developing therapies for obesity.

The findings of the study were published in the journal ‘JCI Insight’. UT Southwestern scientists may have identified a method of safely mimicking the weight-loss benefits of a plant compound that — despite its harmful side effects — hold critical answers to developing therapies for obesity.

Celastrol, derived from the root extracts of a white-flowered plant in China, has drawn increased attention in recent years after studies showed it can both prevent and reverse obesity in mice. However, because celastrol can cause reactions such as high blood pressure and lethargy in mice, researchers have sought to understand how the compound works and use that knowledge to develop safe weight-loss treatments for people.

UT Southwestern may have solved part of the puzzle in a new study that shows celastrol requires a specific protein in a type of neuron that influences metabolism. Scientists found they can mimic a “fed” signal to mouse brains by deleting this protein from the neurons, resulting in mice losing 7 per cent of their body weight in two weeks despite being a fed high-fat diet.

Key to the findings: The mice did not appear to endure the same physical ailments documented in previous research in which celastrol was administered.

“This new understanding of how celastrol works on the cellular level open more possibilities for targeting pathways that can improve our metabolism without the negative health impact,” said study author Kevin W. Williams, PhD, an investigator at UT Southwestern’s Center for Hypothalamic Research.

“We haven’t uncovered all the cell populations that influence weight loss, but each of these findings brings us closer to developing effective, safe therapies for obesity,” added Dr Williams.

The study is the latest research from Dr Williams that may someday help improve glucose metabolism in patients with obesity-driven conditions such as diabetes. More than 30 million Americans have diabetes, accounting for nearly 10 per cent of the population, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The new research focused on a class of cells in the brain called POMC neurons, which are associated with reduced appetite, lower blood glucose levels, and higher energy burning when activated. A 2019 study from Dr Williams showed a single bout of exercise can boost the activity of POMC for up to two days.

In the latest research, the Williams lab found this neuron also plays a critical part in how celastrol impacts weight loss. Mice given the compound saw the decreased activity of a protein called PERK within the region of the brain where POMC neurons reside. The lab further found that deleting PERK from these neurons can replicate much of the weight-loss effects of celastrol, and appears to do so without causing harmful side effects often associated with anti-obesity drugs.

“The mice were leaner and had the same activity levels; they didn’t appear lethargic, sickly or ill. But this is through observation only. Further study is needed to verify how targeting this pathway may be influencing their cardiovascular systems and other functions,” Dr Williams said.

The Food and Drug Administration cautions people against the use of celastrol, a substance also known as thunder god vine used in traditional Chinese medicine. Although extracts from the plant are sold as supplements, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has posted cautionary statements saying scientists do not yet have enough data about celastrol’s safety and effectiveness.

But the compound has already given scientists important insight into how safer strategies for weight loss may be developed in the lab. In the new study, for instance, deleting PERK from the POMC neurons blocked about half the food intake-reducing effect of celastrol.

“This indicates there are other cell populations for celastrol’s effects on metabolism besides POMC,” said Dr Williams, Associate Professor of Internal Medicine at UT Southwestern and an investigator in the Peter O’Donnell Jr. Brain Institute.

“We’ll continue mapping the roles of these cell types until we have a fuller picture of the complex network of pathways. One day, perhaps, this knowledge may contribute to the development of more effective therapeutics in the treatment of obesity and diabetes,” added Dr Williams.

Research: Intermittent Fasting Works For Weight loss, Health Changes

According to a new study review led by University of Illinois Chicago researchers, intermittent fasting can produce clinically significant weight loss as well as improve metabolic health in individuals with obesity.

The findings of the study were published in the journal Annual Review of Nutrition. “We noted that intermittent fasting is not better than regular dieting; both produce the same amount of weight loss and similar changes in blood pressure, cholesterol and inflammation,” said Krista Varady, professor of nutrition at the UIC College of Applied Health Sciences and author of “Cardiometabolic Benefits of Intermittent Fasting.”

According to the analysis published in the Annual Review of Nutrition, all forms of fasting reviewed produced mild to moderate weight loss, 1-8 per cent from baseline weight, which represents results that are similar to that of more traditional, calorie-restrictive diets.

Intermittent fasting regimens may also benefit health by decreasing blood pressure and insulin resistance, and in some cases, cholesterol and triglyceride levels are also lowered. Other health benefits, such as improved appetite regulation and positive changes in the gut microbiome, have also been demonstrated.

The review looked at over 25 research studies involving three types of intermittent fasting:

– Alternate day fasting, which typically involves a feast day alternated with a fast day where 500 calories are consumed in one meal.
– 5:2 diet, a modified version of alternate-day fasting that involves five feast days and two fast days per week.
– Time-restricted eating, which confines eating to a specified number of hours per day, usually four to 10 hours, with no calorie restrictions during the eating period.

Various studies of time-restricted eating show participants with obesity losing an average of 3 per cent of their body weight, regardless of the time of the eating window.

Studies showed alternate day fasting resulted in weight loss of 3-8 per cent of body weight over three to eight weeks, with results peaking at 12 weeks. Individuals on alternate day fasting typically do not overeat or binge on feast days, which results in mild to moderate weight loss, according to the review.

Studies for the 5:2 diet showed similar results to alternate-day fasting, which surprised the study’s reviewers. The subjects who participate in the 5:2 diet fast much less frequently than alternate-day fasting participants do, but the results of weight loss results are similar.

Weight loss in both the alternate day and 5:2 fasting are comparable to more traditional daily calorie-restrictive diets. And, both fasting diets showed individuals were able to maintain an average of 7 per cent weight loss for a year.

“You’re fooling your body into eating a little bit less and that’s why people are losing weight,” Varady said.
Varady added the review set out to debunk some myths regarding intermittent fasting. Intermittent fasting does not negatively affect metabolism, nor does it cause disordered eating, according to the studies reviewed.

“Fasting people are worried about feeling lethargic and not being able to concentrate. Even though you are not eating, it won’t affect your energy,” Varady said. “A lot of people experience a boost of energy on fasting days. Don’t worry, you won’t feel crappy. You may even feel better.”

The study review includes a summary of practical considerations for those who may want to try intermittent fasting. Among the considerations are:

– Adjustment time — Side effects such as headaches, dizziness and constipation subside after one to two weeks of fasting. Increased water intake can help alleviate headaches caused by dehydration during this time.
– Exercise — Moderate to high-intensity endurance or resistance training during food abstention can be done, and some study participants reported having more energy on fast days. However, studies recommend those following alternate day fasting eat their fasting day meal after exercise.
– Diet during fasting — There are no specific recommendations for food consumption during intermittent fasting, but eating fruits, vegetables and whole grains can help boost fibre intake and help relieve constipation that sometimes accompanies fasting.
– Alcohol and caffeine — For those using an alternate day or 5:2 fasting plan, alcohol is not recommended on fast days as the limited calories should be used on healthy foods that provide nutrition.
There are several groups who should not intermittent fast, according to the studies. Those individuals include:
-Those who are pregnant or lactating.
-Children under 12.
– Those with a history of disordered eating.
– Those with a body mass index, or BMI, less than 18.5.
– Shift workers. Studies have shown they may struggle with fasting regimens because of shifting work schedules.
– Those who need to take the medication with food at regimented times.

“People love intermittent fasting because it’s easy. People need to find diets that they can stick to long term. It’s definitely effective for weight loss and it’s gained popularity because there are no special foods or apps necessary. You can also combine it with other diets, like Keto,” Varady said.

Varady has recently been awarded a National Institutes of Health grant to study time-restricted eating for 12 months to see if it works long term.

The paper’s additional authors include Sofia Cienfuegos, Mark Ezpeleta and Kelsey Gabel, all of the department of kinesiology and nutrition at UIC.

Study Finds How Much Weight To Lose For Type 2 Diabetes Management

A new study has found that weight loss of 15 per cent or more should become a central focus of managing type 2 diabetes (T2D) since it has the potential to slow progress and even reverse many cases and reduce complications.

The findings of the study were published in the journal ‘The Lancet’. The proposed strategy was presented at this week’s Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD), held online this year.

“We propose that for most patients with type 2 diabetes without cardiovascular disease, the main treatment focus should be managing the key underlying abnormality and driver of the disease: obesity,” stated paper co-author Dr Ildiko Lingvay, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

“Such an approach would have the added benefit of addressing not just high blood sugar, but other obesity-related complications, such as fatty liver, obstructive sleep apnoea, osteoarthritis, high blood pressure and an elevated blood fats profile, thus having a much greater impact on the person’s overall health than just managing blood sugar alone,” Dr Lingvay added.

“Treatment of obesity to achieve a sustained loss of 15 per cent body weight has been shown to have a major impact on type 2 diabetes progression and even result in diabetes remission in some patients,” added co-author Dr Priya Sumithran, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

The evidence of the benefits of weight loss in T2D management comes from several sources. In the DiRECT trial which assessed an intensive lifestyle intervention in patients with overweight or obesity and T2D of fewer than 6 years’ duration showed remission of T2D at 2 years in 70 per cent of those who lost 15kg or more (with an average baseline weight of 100kg).

Studies of obesity (bariatric) surgery have also shown both immediate and sustained benefits to patients with T2D and obesity – reducing the need for glucose-lowering drugs within days of surgery and improving multiple indicators of health for the long term.

The paper also discusses the various drug treatments available for weight management. Five agents (orlistat, phentermine-topiramate, naltrexone-bupropion, liraglutide 3*0 mg, and semaglutide 2*4 mg) are approved by one or more regulatory authorities worldwide for chronic weight management.

Weekly semaglutide 2*4 mg was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in June 2021. There are also many other drugs being developed, such as tirzepatide (which is an agonist of receptors for both glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)).

Studies of these new pharmaceuticals, such as semaglutide 2*4 mg and tirzepatide 15*0 mg, have reported that 15 per cent of body weight can be readily lost in more than 25 per cent of participants with T2D, and near normalisation of blood sugar control in most participants.

Most patients (40-70 per cent) with type 2 diabetes will have one or more features of insulin resistance, meaning their T2D is likely driven by increasing body fat.

“Key features that identify people in whom increasing body fat is a key mechanistic contributor to type 2 diabetes are the presence of central adiposity (fat around the waist), increased waist circumference, multiple skin tags, high blood pressure, and fatty liver disease,” explained Dr Lingvay.

“In this population, we propose a treatment goal of total weight loss of at least 15 per cent, with the intention of not merely improving blood sugar control, but rather as the most effective way to disrupt the core pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and thus change its course in the long term and prevent its associated metabolic complications,” continued Dr Lingvay.

The authors outlined important considerations when redefining treatment goals for patients with T2D to focus on sustained weight loss. Firstly, the initiative should be driven by updating treatment guidelines to include substantial, sustained weight loss as a primary treatment target for patients with T2D.

Health systems should focus on the upstream benefits of reducing obesity in preventing or controlling T2D, rather than the higher costs of treating someone with advancing T2D and the cluster of complications that can come with the condition.

“Also vital is that medical practice management should refocus to effectively incorporate weight management for patients with type 2 diabetes,” said Dr Lingvay.

“Health-care providers, especially those managing people with diabetes routinely, should be trained and become experienced in all aspects of obesity management. Support staff should be trained to support patients through their weight-loss journeys, and practices should consider the need for specialised staff to deliver the educational component of the new treatment strategies that are proposed,” added Dr Lingvay.

The authors concluded, “The time is right to consider the addition of substantial (ie, double-digit per cent) weight loss as a principal target for the treatment of many patients with type 2 diabetes. This approach would address the pathophysiology of the disease process for type 2 diabetes; recognise adipose tissue pathology as a key underlying driver of the continuum of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease; and reap metabolic benefits far beyond blood sugar control. Such a change in treatment goals would recognise obesity as a disease with reversible complications and require a shift in clinical care.”

Early Weight Loss Protects Fertility Of Obese Persons: Study

The reproductive function in obese boys can be improved through weight loss, which in turn could protect their fertility in adulthood, according to new research.

The study presented at the 59th Annual European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Meeting suggests that even after short-term weight loss, alterations in reproductive function could be partially reversed in young boys with obesity. This indicates that early management of obesity in childhood could help prevent future fertility problems in men. Childhood obesity can have some profound effects on future health in adulthood, including a greater risk of cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Obesity has also been linked to fertility problems in both men and women. The commonest causes of fertility problems in men are usually sperm abnormalities or a low sperm count.

Leydig cells in the testes become active in puberty to produce the main male hormone, testosterone. Sertoli cells in the testes are critical for the production of healthy sperm and produce several reproductive hormones, essential for sperm maturation.

Previous work has shown early alteration of Sertoli cell function in obese boys from the age of 12, with later alteration in Leydig cell function from the age of 14. However, whether weight loss might reverse the altered function of these cells had not been investigated.

In this study, Dr Solene Rerat and colleagues at Angers University Hospital in France investigated how a 12-week educational weight loss programme in 34 boys, aged 10 – 18 years, affected markers of Leydig and Sertoli cell function, as well as metabolism.

The boys had a healthy, balanced diet, undertook physical activity for at least 1 hour per day, according to international recommendations, and had weekly individual sessions with a dietician. Before and after the programme, levels of reproductive hormones, body fat composition and blood glucose were measured for comparison. Over the 12 weeks, the boys significantly lost weight and had improved insulin levels, as well as increased testosterone levels.

No significant changes were found in markers of Sertoli cell function. Since fat cells produce an enzyme that converts testosterone to oestrogen, the actual loss of fat mass may account for some of the increased testosterone levels, in addition to the reversal of Leydig cell altered function.

Dr Rerat states, “These findings underline the need to consider childhood obesity as a factor in future fertility issues. We strongly recommend that early management of childhood obesity is necessary to reverse these impairments, and to help prevent future reproductive problems, as well as lowering the risks of other debilitating diseases.”

The team now plans to measure the reproductive function of the group more long-term and to expand it to include more participants to gather more data to confirm and extend these findings.

Dr Rerat cautions, “Our study only evaluated the effects in a small number of obese boys after a twelve-week therapeutic educational program. Further studies with longer follow up are needed to help us fully study the effect of weight reduction on reproductive function.”

Remo D’Souza Proud Of Wife Lizelle’s Weight Loss Journey

Choreographer-director Remo D’Souza is proud of his wife and producer Lizelle D’Souza for her grit and determination to undergo an inspiring weight loss transformation.

Taking to his Instagram handle on Sunday, Remo shared a collage of Lizelle’s before and after pictures. The picture of the left captures the couple in traditional attire, in which Lizelle is yet to undergo her weight loss journey.

The right one is a recently clicked picture, where the couple can be seen dressed in western outfits and Lizelle looks completely transformed, confidently flaunting her looks.

Along with the photo, Remo penned a caption inspired by his wife for “achieving what was impossible”.
“It takes a lot of hard work to get there, but the biggest battle is with yourself and I have seen @lizelleremodsouza fighting that battle and achieving what was impossible I always use to say it’s your MIND, you have to make strong and Liz you DiD it so proud of you, you are stronger than me, you inspire me 🙂 love you,” Remo wrote.

To this Lizelle commented, “Awwwwwwwwww, I love u baby.”

Meanwhile, on the work front, Remo is currently the Super Judge in season 6 of the dance-reality show ‘Dance+’, streaming on the OTT platform Disney+ Hotstar.

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